Leave no one behind

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Studies indicate the actual cost of global warming will be highest for the three top emitting countries: China, India and US and with the most to lose from climate change. The cost is higher than first assumed. Many countries have not yet recognised the risk posed by climate change. This study aims at filling this gap and shows mapping of domestic impacts of climate change can help better understand the determinants of international cooperation.

COVID-19 pandemic has led to the worst economic downturn of the last decades mainly due to measures to stop the spread of the virus. This has led to reduction in demand and production capacity. Governments worldwide adopt packages as a response to the COVID-19 crisis, with $3.5 trillion dedicated to climate protections in the agriculture, industry, energy, and transport sectors. By adapting packages that are green, boosts economic growth worldwide triggered by increased low-carbon investment.

Renewable energy cooperation can play an important role in the energy transition in the European Union through international trade, safeguarding security of energy supply, coordinated climate adaptation measures, and optimizing the cost-effectiveness of actions. Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) could play a useful role, e.g. contributing to achieve climate goals in certain countries, or supporting the energy system with dispatchable electricity, they also believe that this role could be filled by realizing other options.

A significant proportion of Eastern Africa is a relatively poor with a predominately rural population and lack access to modern energy services. Reliance on traditional biomass has created severe problems for both the environment and the health of the population: improved access to cleaner fuels would solve this and achieve multiple policy goals. The Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM) is utilised to simulate future scenarios. The study suggests the optimal subsidy policy implementation and recommendations.

The poorest people still struggle to have access to sanitation and clean energy. However, as incomes rise in developing countries, access to electricity, clean cooking energy, water, and sanitation, also improves but not as quickly as income growth. The United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) aim to achieve universal access to clean energy, water, and sanitation by 2030. This study highlights the challenges of achieving SDGs, but also points to policy directions that could help.

Models are tools which help to assess the positive and negative impacts of a low-emission pathway for the country. Interview questions formed the basis for a series of model runs to obtain a better understanding of the implications of the energy efficiency pathway in Poland. The goal of the model run was to shed light on the macroeconomic impacts of investment in energy efficiency in Poland in the built environment.

Institutional, economic, and social contexts influence the formulation and implementation of climate policy instruments. Three categories of contextual factors that are especially relevant to climate change mitigation in EU policymaking: institutions and governance, innovation and investment and attitudes, behaviour, and lifestyle. Different factors or conditions may facilitate or hinder effective policy implementation as so much depends on the institutional, economic, and social contexts. In addition, not only international pressures but also local barriers.