Noriko Fujiwara

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Institutional, economic, and social contexts influence the formulation and implementation of climate policy instruments. Three categories of contextual factors that are especially relevant to climate change mitigation in EU policymaking: institutions and governance, innovation and investment and attitudes, behaviour, and lifestyle. Different factors or conditions may facilitate or hinder effective policy implementation as so much depends on the institutional, economic, and social contexts. In addition, not only international pressures but also local barriers.

‘20-20-20’ EU energy and climate package targets for 2020 contain three climate and energy goals: 20% reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, a 20% increase in share of renewable energy, and 20% increase in energy efficiency. The impact assessment for the 2020 package was duly conducted with the assumption of coexisting energy and climate policies in place. It is increasingly recognised that there are possible detrimental effects of ‘overlapping policies’ that target the same sector.