We are an ambitious European project on Earth System Modelling that aims to develop the next generation of Earth System Models (ESMs). By developing a novel generation of ESMs, we take a step forward in providing relevant climate simulations for the design of comprehensive climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies, in line with the Paris Agreement. This next generation of ESMs will include an improved representation of the full Earth-system response to anthropogenic emissions, with a particular focus on human land-use change.

Project details

  • Project title: “Earth System Models for the Future” (ESM2025)
  • Funding scheme: Horizon 2020 (Grant agreement no. 101003536)
  • Duration: 4 years (1 June 2021 – 31 May 2025)
  • Project coordinator: Météo France-CNRM, France
  • Project website:

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This article gives an overview of the recent advances on the interactive modelling of ice sheet dynamics in Earth System Models, and the implications for reducing the uncertainty of sea-level rise projections, especially when considering multi-centennial timescales of changes or low-likelihood high-impact scenarios.

In this article, we provide an overview of current understanding of the land-to-ocean carbon fluxes. We describe the new conceptual model of the land-to-ocean aquatic continuum (proposed by Regnier et al, 2022, Nature), as well as ongoing work to include this new knowledge in Earth System Models.

New study on the impacts of wildfire emissions on fine particle air pollution in the western US until the end of the 21st century, under different climate change scenarios.
This work highlights the fact that when committing to a particular level of future warming, we are also committing to a particular level of fine particle air pollution. This has to be taken into account when considering mitigation and adaptation strategies.