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Many European countries has committed to reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 80-95% in 2050, relative to 1990 emission levels as part of the Paris Agreement which set an international ambition to combat climate change. Agriculture contributed 13% of the Netherlands’ total greenhouse gas emissions in 2016 from various soruces. Within the livestock sector, GHG emission reductions will need to be viable from an economic perspective but also meet social and environmental standards.

The ‘Winter Package’ in the EU focusses on clean energy for all Europeans and contains specific goals for energy and climate and calls upon Member States to formulate Integrated National Energy and Climate Plans (INECPs). Case study findings in support of INECP formulation are assessed in this report of three case studies: Greece, Austria and the Netherlands.

Evaluation of climate change mitigation policy is critical for how well policies and measures work. Offering insights in the functioning of policies can enhance the transparency of policy implementation, which is essential to gain citizens’ support for those policies. The CARISMA project team carried out a meta-analysis of climate policy evaluations in EU Member States and found that the energy sector is dominant in policy evaluations. Supports future EU legislative proposals and accompanying impact assessments.

About 96% of all households in the Netherlands are heated using natural gas and is still the European Union’s largest natural gas producer. The demand for heat will have to be filled in another way than using natural gas and lot of existing buildings will need to be retrofitted. The transition will also have huge social implications, as it will affect the houses of seven million households in the Netherlands.

Transition pathways are compared to the land use domain of the Netherlands and Portugal. The land use domain analyses land systems and the changes within them and typically involves the analysis of land cover and land use. 4 main regimes were identified, three of which are common to both: agriculture, nature, and urban, and one which is different for each. The Dutch and Portuguese niches under study are all examples of regime transformation niches.

Comparing the observed transition pathways in the agro-food domain in the Netherlands and Hungary investigates niche innovations from both countries and provides insight into the potential ways toward a sustainable and low carbon society. Differences and similarities between the countries can be explained by the following: societal issues, export vs. import, the government environment, the focus of policy, government involvement, and geographical context. Innovation is the best chance for direct progress to reduce the pressure.

In the PATHWAYS project, empirical transition pathways have been compared to ideal-type transition pathways. All analyses use the multi-level perspective (MLP) to explain similarities and differences between the different countries. One of the domains considered is land-based passenger mobility, with empirical transition pathways from the United Kingdom and the Netherlands.

Integrated Manure Management (IMM) is a transition pathway in the livestock sector used as a case study in this report. It is an alternative to reducing livestock (RL) numbers and both can be scored in terms of their contribution to meeting environmental targets. With a better understanding of the side-effects of alternative pathways, it will be easier to develop a more robust and integrated policy framework for low-carbon transitions in the livestock sector.