The EU-funded Beyond EPICA project set up a camp at Little Dome C in East Antarctica, with the aim to obtain quantitative, high-resolution ice-core information on climate and environmental changes over the last 1.5 million years
Transition pathways are compared to the land use domain of the Netherlands and Portugal. The land use domain analyses land systems and the changes within them and typically involves the analysis of land cover and land use. 4 main regimes were identified, three of which are common to both: agriculture, nature, and urban, and one which is different for each. The Dutch and Portuguese niches under study are all examples of regime transformation niches.
Comparing the observed transition pathways in the agro-food domain in the Netherlands and Hungary investigates niche innovations from both countries and provides insight into the potential ways toward a sustainable and low carbon society. Differences and similarities between the countries can be explained by the following: societal issues, export vs. import, the government environment, the focus of policy, government involvement, and geographical context. Innovation is the best chance for direct progress to reduce the pressure.
It is important to have a clear understanding of the relevant systems when designing pathways towards low emissions. An innovative tool has been designed specifically for the purposes of system mapping: Mapping Tool for Innovation Systems Evaluation (MATISE).
Choices regarding mitigating climate change are associated with a range of risks and uncertainties. By investigating these choices, a broad conceptual framework accounting for exogenous risks, as risks to the implementation of a policy choice, and consequential risks, as risks resulting from an implemented policy, in the areas of political, regulatory, social, economic, and environmental risks was developed.
Integrated Manure Management (IMM) is a transition pathway in the livestock sector used as a case study in this report. It is an alternative to reducing livestock (RL) numbers and both can be scored in terms of their contribution to meeting environmental targets. With a better understanding of the side-effects of alternative pathways, it will be easier to develop a more robust and integrated policy framework for low-carbon transitions in the livestock sector.