A good practice assssment performed by the EU funded RES4BUILD project reveals that accelerating the uptake of Integrated Energy Solutions (IES) increasingly requires consideration of financial and social innovation to address non-technological barriers.
The Paris Agreement requires a global decrease in Green House Gas emissions by 2050 which requires input from cities. Research and Innovation (R&I) in European cities is described in this paper and explains the critical R&I actions in cities based on three pillars.
About 96% of all households in the Netherlands are heated using natural gas and is still the European Union’s largest natural gas producer. The demand for heat will have to be filled in another way than using natural gas and lot of existing buildings will need to be retrofitted. The transition will also have huge social implications, as it will affect the houses of seven million households in the Netherlands.
Austria will add additional financial means to the existing policy framework to reach their target value for primary energy consumption of 1050 PetaJoule in 2020 (compared to 1120 PJ in 2013). The case study has analysed whether energy efficiency improvement policies lead to overlaps with policies at the level of provincial governments and what this could mean for the effectiveness and efficiency of the policies.