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Choices regarding mitigating climate change are associated with a range of risks and uncertainties. By investigating these choices, a broad conceptual framework accounting for exogenous risks, as risks to the implementation of a policy choice, and consequential risks, as risks resulting from an implemented policy, in the areas of political, regulatory, social, economic, and environmental risks was developed.

Integrated Manure Management (IMM) is a transition pathway in the livestock sector used as a case study in this report. It is an alternative to reducing livestock (RL) numbers and both can be scored in terms of their contribution to meeting environmental targets. With a better understanding of the side-effects of alternative pathways, it will be easier to develop a more robust and integrated policy framework for low-carbon transitions in the livestock sector.

Austria will add additional financial means to the existing policy framework to reach their target value for primary energy consumption of 1050 PetaJoule in 2020 (compared to 1120 PJ in 2013). The case study has analysed whether energy efficiency improvement policies lead to overlaps with policies at the level of provincial governments and what this could mean for the effectiveness and efficiency of the policies.

‘20-20-20’ EU energy and climate package targets for 2020 contain three climate and energy goals: 20% reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, a 20% increase in share of renewable energy, and 20% increase in energy efficiency. The impact assessment for the 2020 package was duly conducted with the assumption of coexisting energy and climate policies in place. It is increasingly recognised that there are possible detrimental effects of ‘overlapping policies’ that target the same sector.

Policymakers and stakeholders need a manageable tool to reduce the complexity of different design options. The EU-funded POLIMP project has provided a practical criteria matrix to assist policy makers and relevant decision-makers in evaluating and comparing different proposals for the 2015 Agreement. Several important results of the analysis of Parties’ submissions are given.

Renewable energy implementation has advantages but requires the harmonisation of the EU support scheme for renewable energy support policies that may eventually improve policy performance. In addition, cost-effective renewable energy policies require the involvement of all participating actors in the decision processes regarding modifications of support schemes.