The transport sector accounts for almost 1/4 of the EU’s total GHG emissions, and decarbonisation of the sector is therefore crucial. The use of electric powered transport is emerging as the most viable near-term solution to reduce CO2 emissions road transport. The falling costs of batteries means that Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs) for personal use are becoming more cost competitive, so large potential for Electric Road Systems (ERS) but with substantial uncertainties in costs.
In this article, heat energy transition pathways in the UK, Germany and Sweden have been compared by evaluating empirical to ideal scenarios. Heat energy transition is the core of the energy transition, as heating is currently the most energy-intensive activity in Europe.